Flour- Here I am talking specifically about wheat flour. Now of course there are many other types of flours such as nut flours and flours ground from seeds. Some types of flours available are: barley, buckwheat, chickpea, corn, oats, potato, rice, rye, and soy.
But here in my recipes I use only a few of the main wheat flours: All Purpose, Cake Flour, Bread Flour, Pastry Flour and at times, Whole Wheat Flour.
A whole grain of wheat, sometimes called a wheat berry, is composed of three layers:
The bran is the layer where you’ll find most of the fiber, and it’s the hard outer shell of the kernel. The germ is the nutrient-rich embryo that will sprout into a new wheat plant. The endosperm is the largest part of the grain (83 percent), making up most of the kernel, and it’s mostly starch.
White flour is made from the endosperm only, whereas whole-wheat flour combines all three parts of the wheat berry.
All-purpose flour – has a 10-12% protein content and is made from a blend of hard and soft wheat flours. They can be bleached or unbleached. And whether it is bleached or not, it is interchangeable in your recipe without much difference. You will notice I use AP flour a lot in cake recipes that I find need more strength and structure. Good for making cakes, cookies, breads, and pastries.
What’s the deal with Bleaching?
Why do they do it?
Flour needs age to soften it so it can be used for baking and cooking. Unbleached flour will age naturally in a few months but bleaching the flour makes it ready within weeks. Time is money, and it is cost effective for a big company to keep product moving rather than tying up warehouse space, being vulnerable to critters and bugs over months rather than weeks. So bleaching the flour accelerates the natural aging of the flour.
Bleached flour has less protein than unbleached. Bleached is best for pie crusts, cookies, cakes, quick breads, pancakes and waffles. Use unbleached flour for yeast breads, Danish pastry, puff pastry, strudel, éclairs & cream puffs.
Cake flour generally has 7% – 8.5% protein. It is beached so therefore weakens the proteins and results in a more delicate flour, in turn offering more delicate products like chiffon and angel food cakes.
** To make your own version of a softer Cake Style Flour: Measure out 1 cup (125g) of all purpose or plain flour. TAKE OUT 2 Tablespoons (15g) and return it to the bin. Next add 2 Tablespoons of Corn Starch (15g).
Sift this mixture 2 times through a fine mesh sieve and you now have 1 Cup of Cake Flour to use in recipes calling for such.
For those weighing your recipes- 110g All Purpose or Plain Flour + 15g Cornstarch
Pastry flour contains 8.5% – 9.5% protein. It is used in delicate cakes and pastries, pie crusts, cookies and muffins. Absorbs less liquid in recipes. It is from soft red winter or soft white winter wheat for use in biscuits, pancakes, pie crusts, cookies, muffins and brownies.
Bread flour has a 12-14% protein content and is made from hard wheat flour. The high gluten gives it shape and structure. Good for making breads and some pastries.
Self-Rising flour has 8-9% protein and contains soft flour similar to a cake or pastry flour plus baking powder and salt. I do not use this type of flour.
Note: If you do choose to use self rise flour you run the risk of it being stored too long both in the market and in your own pantry, causing the baking powder to lose its power and your baked goods will not rise. * I do not use self rising flour and I do not recommend you use it in my recipes. However, many of you will insist, and so if you DO use it here please note that you may not get the exact result that my recipes are intended to come out as. Self rising flour has approximately 1 – 1 1/2 teaspoons of baking powder and roughly 1/4 teaspoon of salt and per 1 cup of flour. So if you decide to use self rise in place of my specified ingredients, please adjust the baking powder and salt accordingly.
Whole Wheat Flour– protein levels are higher for whole wheat flour than white flour, but about 3 to 4 points of that percentage is in the germ and the bran, so it doesn’t add to the dough strength. Whole wheat flour is brown in color, and is derived from the complete wheat kernel (the bran and germ). When used in bread baking, it gives a nutty flavor and a denser texture when compared to all-purpose flour. Bread does not rise as high in whole-wheat breads, which is why a mixture of both whole-wheat and white flour is often used when baking.
1 cup AP flour= 125g
1 cup Bread Flour= 130g
1 cup Pastry and Cake Flour = 120g
1 cup Whole Wheat Flour= 130g
A NOTE ON FLOUR IN THE UK:
In the UK self raising flour is called self raising flour. It consists of flour, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and cream of tartar. It can have other ingredients to improve the carbon dioxide eg tartaric acid, calcium phosphate, no salt!!! It is genrally called baking powder. It is heavier than cake flour.
Plain flour has no leavening = All Purpose, is heavier than cake flour
Cake flour plain = Extra fine flour 00 grade without leavening, either made by McDougals or Home Pride
Cake flour self raising = Extra fine 00 grade with leavening also made by McDougals/ Home Pride
Extra fine 000 grade used for making sauces, custards, gravy
dusting fish for frying. Looks almost like corn flour/corn starch
Quickest acting baking powder in the UK is Dr Oekter which is activated when wet even at room temperature.
In the USA Rumford’s baking powder contains calcium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate and corn starch which is an anti caking agent.